Crossing smaller leads

Team uses cut ice to create bridge

Here they are chopping off a section of ice to swing around and use as a bridge over the lead.

Team on Ice Bridge

Crossing on a bridge of ice...

This is how team mate Professor Ross Marvin checked how far North they were using a sextant. They built a wind shelter with blocks of snow. Then he set up his instrument to record the sun angle. He is trying to find the "noon culmination"—the highest point in the sky reached by the sun. By measuring that angle he can determine their latitude—how far north they are.

Many people do not understand why Peary never checked longitude (position east or west). It turns out that near the Pole it is much simpler to navigate than people understood. Longitude converges at the Pole. Think about that for a minute. All one has to do is travel due north because at the Pole there is no east or west. It is the single point about which the earth rotates. In fact, Captain Amundsen's team that discovered the South Pole navigated the same way that Commander Peary did. The English guy, Robert Scott wasted too much time trying to determine longitude because he did not understand what Peary and Amundsen knew about navigation.

The triangular device in front of Ross Marvin is an artificial horizon. It consists of a pan of mercury with glass sides. At high latitude it is necessary to use this as the sun is so low and one can't always see the exact horizon.

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